Health Articles & News Update
Giving You Instant Access To The World's Health Experts!
|Home | Disease & Conditions | Diet & Nutrition | Fitness | Healthy Living | Recommended Products | Contact|
Disease & Conditions >>> Cancer Articles & News
3 Cigarettes-A-Day Double A Woman's Risk For CancerSummarized by Robert W. Griffith, MD
More and more women smoke today, and many, if not most of them, are well aware of the risks involved. They'll say, "I only smoke 2-3 a day" or, "I don't inhale", and reason that they are not at increased risk. But this isn't really the case, as a new study from Denmark has shown.
What was doneThe Copenhagen City heart Study followed over 14,000 people over a 20-year period, looking for possible links between their smoking habits and whether they had a heart attack (myocardial infarction or MI), or died from some other cause. Only people over 30 were included, to make sure that smoking habits were well established at the start of the study. People with previous heart symptoms or those with inadequate information on their heart risk factors were excluded.
Questionnaires and lab tests were done at baseline to determine existing heart risk factors. These covered height & weight (to give the body mass index, or BMI), educational level, household income, alcohol intake, physical activity, family history of diabetes or MI, blood pressure, and blood cholesterol levels.
Smoking status was recorded as never-smoked, former-smoker, or current smoker. Current smokers gave the amount and type of tobacco smoked, and whether they inhaled or not. For the purpose of analysis across the board one cigarette was equated to 1 gram of tobacco, a cheroot to 3 grams, and a cigar to 5 grams.
The resultsOver 2,000 of the original volunteers were excluded because of they were under 30, had a history of heart disease, or were missing information on risk factors. This left over 6,500 women and 5,500 men in the study.
During the 20-odd years, 7.3% of the women and 15.5% of the men had an MI. Of these, 40% died. Deaths from all causes were 35% in women and 51% in men.
More men smoked than women (70% vs. 58%), they smoked more (measured in grams of tobacco per day), and more of the men inhaled (77% vs. 70%). Women smoked cigarettes more than men (81% vs. 57%), although both sexes favored cheroots (14% and 17%, respectively).
After making allowances for their recorded heart risk factors, it was clear that the more the people in the study smoked (grams of tobacco a day), the more likely they were to have an MI or die from some other cause. This was the case in both men and women, and in women whether they inhaled or not.
The investigators wanted to find out the lowest level of smoking that significantly increased the risks.
In women, 6 or more cigarettes 1 a day for non-inhalers and 3 or more cigarettes a day for inhalers significantly increased - roughly doubled - the risk for having an MI or dying from any cause. In men, the level was 6 or more cigarettes a day for inhalers; male non-inhalers were not at increased risk.
Home | Disease & Conditions | Diet & Nutrition | Fitness | Healthy Living | Recommended Products | Contact